What is the biggest known planet in the Universe?

What is the biggest known planet in the Universe?
 VLT NACO image, taken in the Ks-band, of GQ Lupi. The feeble point of light to the right of the star is the newly found cold companion. It is 250 times fainter than the star itself and it located 0.73 arcsecond west. At the distance of GQ Lupi, this corresponds to a distance of roughly 100 astronomical units. North is up and East is to the left.   Credit:    ESO

VLT NACO image, taken in the Ks-band, of GQ Lupi. The feeble point of light to the right of the star is the newly found cold companion. It is 250 times fainter than the star itself and it located 0.73 arcsecond west. At the distance of GQ Lupi, this corresponds to a distance of roughly 100 astronomical units. North is up and East is to the left. Credit: ESO

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Our list of known planets and exoplanets unfortunately doesn’t extend much beyond our own Milky Way galaxy - to spot a planet, you need to be able to measure the light from an individual star and monitor it over time. You’re looking either for tiny flickers in the amount of light you receive, as a planet happens to pass in front of the star you’re watching, or you’re looking for there to be a little Doppler shift in the color of the star’s light, as the planets tug it slightly off center as they orbit.  Known by the names of the transit method and the Doppler shift method respectively, both of these require really careful observations over a significant amount of time, without the light from the star mixing with the light from other stars. This limits us pretty well to the stars within or surrounding our Milky Way.

Because the measurements required to spot planets must be so precise, generally the telescopes we send out to do these measurements only look at a small patch of the sky. So while I can give you our current high scoring planets, there’s no guarantee these will remain the all-time bests, if we point our telescopes in a new direction.

There is one fundamental limitation to how massive a planet can get - if you pack too much material into a planet, it will start to fuse elements in its core, and it formally becomes a star instead of a planet. This transition happens when the object is somewhere in the range of 13 to 80 times the mass of Jupiter, and is the point at which we typically start calling objects a brown dwarf star, orbiting another star, instead of a planet. The list of biggest planets can also change if we get better measurements. It's possible to learn that what we thought was a planet should really be called a brown dwarf, which then bumps that object off the list of biggest planets, and onto the list of known brown dwarfs.

 This artist's conception illustrates what a "Y dwarf" might look like. Y dwarfs are the coldest star-like bodies known, with temperatures that can be even cooler than the human body. Image credit:  NASA/JPL-Caltech

This artist's conception illustrates what a "Y dwarf" might look like. Y dwarfs are the coldest star-like bodies known, with temperatures that can be even cooler than the human body. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

However, you can still have very large, fluffy planets, well before they get to this boundary of being a star. Most of the ones we know about are Jupiter like in style - massive, gaseous planets, orbiting distant stars. The easiest to find are hot Jupters - exoplanets which are not only bigger than Jupiter, they’re much closer into their star than Jupiter is to our Sun. Currently, the majority of the biggest, fluffiest planets are about twice the radius of Jupiter. Considering that you could stack 22 and a half Earths edge to edge to match the width of Jupiter, you’re looking at a planet so large, you could line up 45 Earths behind it, and not see any of them. These planets have the very pronounceable names of ROXs 42Bb, which is estimated to be about 2.5 times the size of Jupiter, or Kepler-13 Ab, which sits around 2.2 times the size of Jupiter.

There are some larger ones, but these have preliminary estimates of their size, and may yet turn out to be brown dwarfs. The current record holder is a planet orbiting a star known as GQ Lupi, and estimates place it at somewhere around 4 times larger than Jupiter. This particular object is so large that our theoretical models of how it has formed are not particularly happy, and so the estimates on its size and mass are both pretty hazy. It is likely to remain a planet, but if it turns out that its mass is on the high end of our current estimates, it could wind up on a brown dwarf list. (This object is also extremely young, and will change and compress as it evolves.)

 Artist's impression of the simultaneous stellar eclipse and planetary transit events on Kepler-1647.  Credits: Lynette Cook

Artist's impression of the simultaneous stellar eclipse and planetary transit events on Kepler-1647. Credits: Lynette Cook

These big fluffy planets are orbiting your default solar system - one with a single star, around which all the planets orbit.  If you have two stars (which isn’t that uncommon), it seems to be much harder to build very large planets. The largest planet known to circle two stars at once was only confirmed in 2016, and is almost identical to Jupiter in size. At “only” 22.5 Earths in size, it orbits its parent star once every three years.


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